Literature on Environmental Impacts of Open Ocean



Cage Aquaculture




Ackefors, H. and M. Enell. 1994. The release of nutrients and organic matter from aquaculture systems in Nordic countries. Journal of Applied Ichthyology10: 225-241.


Aguado-Gimenez, F. and B. Garcia-Garcia. 2004. Assessment of some chemical parameters in marine sediments exposed to offshore cage fish farming influence: a pilot study. Aquaculture 242:283-296.


Aguado-Gimenez, F., B. Garcia-Garcia, M. D. Hernandez-Lorente, and J. Cerezo-Valverde. 2006. Gross metabolic waste output estimates using a nutritional approach in Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) under intensive fattening conditions in western Mediterranean Sea. Aquaculture Research 37:1254-1258.


Aguado-Gimenez, F., A. Marin, S. Montoya, L. Marin-Guirao, A. Piedecausa, and B. Garcia-Garcia. 2007. Comparison between some procedures for monitoring offshore cage culture in western Mediterranean Sea: Sampling methods and impact indicators in soft substrata. Aquaculture 271:357-370.


Angel, D. L. and E. Spanier. 2002. An application of artificial reefs to reduce organic enrichment caused by net-cage fish farming: preliminary results. Ices Journal of Marine Science 59:S324-S329.


Asche, F., A.G. Guttormsen and R. Tveteras. 1999. Environmental problems, productivity and innovations in Norwegian salmon aquaculture. Aquaculture Economics and Management 3(1): 19-29.


Asche, F. and T. Sebulonsen. 1999. Salmon prices in France and the UK: does origin or market place matter? Aquaculture Economics and Management 2(1):23-30.


Asche, F. and R. Tveteras. 2004. On the relationship between aquaculture and reduction fisheries. Journal of Agricultural Economics 55(2): 245-265.


Bahri-Sfar, L., C. Lemaire, B. Chatain, P. Divanach, O. K. Ben Hassine, and F. Bonhomme. 2005. Impact of aquaculture on the genetic structure of Mediterranean populations of Dicentrarchus. Aquatic Living Resources 18:71-76.


Bailly, D. and P. Paquotte. 1996. Aquaculture and environment interactions in the perspective of renewable resource management theory. Coastal Management 24:251-269.


Beamish, R. J., S. Jones, C. E. Neville, R. Sweeting, G. Karreman, S. Saksida, and E.Gordon. 2006. Exceptional marine survival of pink salmon that entered the marine environment in 2003 suggests that farmed Atlantic salmon and Pacific salmon can coexist successfully in a marine ecosystem on the Pacific coast of Canada. Ices Journal of Marine Science 63:1326-1337.


Belias, C. V., V. G. Bikas, M. J. Dassenakis, and M. J. Scoullos. 2003. Environmental impacts of coastal Aquaculture in eastern Mediterranean bays the case of Astakos Gulf, Greece. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 10:287-295.


Bergh, O. 2007. The dual myths of the healthy wild fish and the unhealthy farmed fish. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 75:159-164.


Bjørner, T.B., L.G. Hansen and C.S. Russell. 2004. Environmental labeling and consumers’ choice—an empirical analysis of the effect of the Nordic Swan. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 47(3): 411-434.


Bongiorni, L., S. Shafir, and B. Rinkevich. 2003. Effects of particulate matter released by a fish farm (Eilat, Red Sea) on survival and growth of Stylophora pistillata coral nubbins. Marine Pollution Bulletin 46:1120-1124.


Brambilla, F., A. Pais, S. Serra, G. Terova, and M. Saroglia. 2007. A Meramod (R) model approach for the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of the off-shore aquaculture improvement in the Alghero Bay (North western Sardinia, Italy). Italian Journal of Animal Science 6:791-793.


Burbridge, P., V. Hendrick, E. Roth, and H. Rosenthal. 2001. Social and economic policy issues relevant to marine aquaculture. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 17:194-206.


Buryniuk, M., R. J. Petrell, S. Baldwin, and K. V. Lo. 2006. Accumulation and natural disintegration of solid wastes caught on a screen suspended below a fish farm cage. Aquacultural Engineering 35:78-90.


Buschmann, A. H., D. A. Lopez, and A. Medina. 1996. A review of the environmental effects and alternative production strategies of marine aquaculture in Chile. Aquacultural Engineering 15:397-421.


Buschmann, A. H., V. A. Riquelme, M. C. Hernandez-Gonzalez, D. Varela, J. E. Jimenez, L. A. Henriquez, P. A. Vergara, R. Guinez, and L. Filun. 2006. A review of the impacts of salmonid farming on marine coastal ecosystems in the southeast Pacific. Ices Journal of Marine Science 63:1338-1345.


Butler, E. C. V., S. I. Blackburn, L. A. Clementson, P. P. Morgan, J. S. Parslow, and J. K. Volkman. 2001. A survey strategy and environmental monitoring network for an estuary supporting finfish cage culture. Ices Journal of Marine Science 58:460-468.


Cabello, F. 2006. Heavy use of prophylactic antibiotics in aquaculture: a growing problem for human and animal health and for the environment. Environmental Microbiology 8(7):1-8.


Capone, D.G., D.P. Weston, V. Miller, and C. Shoemaker. 1996. Bacterial residues in marine sediments and invertebrates following chemotherapy in aquaculture. Aquaculture 145:55-75.


Carroll, M. L., S. Cochrane, R. Fieler, R. Velvin, and P. White. 2003. Organic enrichment of sediments from salmon farming in Norway: environmental factors, management practices, and monitoring techniques. Aquaculture 226:165-180.


Chamberlain, J. and D. Stucchi. 2007. Simulating the effects of parameter uncertainty on waste model predictions of marine finfish aquaculture. Aquaculture 272:296-311.


Cho, C. Y. and D. P. Bureau. 2001. A review of diet formulation strategies and feeding systems to reduce excretory and feed wastes in aquaculture. Aquaculture Research 32:349-360.


Chopin, T., A. H. Buschmann, C. Halling, M. Troell, N. Kautsky, A. Neori, G. P. Kraemer, J. A. Zertuche-Gonzalez, C. Yarish, and C. Neefus. 2001. Integrating seaweeds into marine aquaculture systems: A key toward sustainability. Journal of Phycology 37:975-986.


Costello, M. J., A. Grant, I. M. Davies, S. Cecchini, S. Papoutsoglou, D. Quigley, and M. Saroglia. 2001. The control of chemicals used in aquaculture in Europe. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 17:173-180.


Crawford, C. 2003. Environmental management of marine aquaculture in Tasmania, Australia. Aquaculture 226:129-138.


Cromey, C.J, and Black, K.D. 2005. Modelling the impacts of finfish aquaculture. Chapter 7 In: B.T. Hargrave (editor) The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry . Environmental effects of Marine Finfish Aquaculture. Volume 5: Water Pollution. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pg. 129-156


Dempster, T., P. Sanchez-Jerez, J. T. Bayle-Sempere, F. Gimenez-Casalduero, and C. Valle. 2002. Attraction of wild fish to sea-cage fish farms in the south-western Mediterranean Sea: spatial and short-term temporal variability. Marine Ecology- Progress Series 242:237-252


Dempster, T., P. Sanchez-Jerez, J. Bayle-Sempere, and M. Kingsford. 2004. Extensive aggregations of wild fish at coastal sea-cage fish farms. Hydrobiologia 525:245 248.


Deutsch, L., S. Graslund, C. Folke, M. Troell, M. Huitric, N. Kautsky, and L. Lebel. 2007. Feeding aquaculture growth through globalization: Exploitation of marine ecosystems for fishmeal. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions 17:238-249.


Doglioli, A.M., Magaldi, M.G., Vezzulli, L, Tucci, S. 2004. Development of a numerical model to study the dispersion of wastes coming from a marine fish farm in the Ligurian Sea (western Mediterranean). Aquaculture  231: 215-235.


Doroshov, S.I. 2000. The escape of cultured sturgeon and the interbreeding with wild stocks. Pp. 25 32 in Proceedings of the Florida Sturgeon Culture Risk Assessment Workshop.  


Einum, S. and I. A. Fleming. 1997. Genetic divergence and interactions in the wild among native, farmed and hybrid Atlantic salmon. Journal of Fish Biology 50:634-651.


Ellingsen, H. and A. Aanondsen. 2006. Environmental impacts of wild caught cod and farmed salmon - A comparison with chicken. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 11:60-65.


Enell, M. 1995. Environmental-impact of nutrients from Nordic fish farming. Water Science and Technology 31:61-71.


Ervik, A., P. K. Hansen, J. Aure, A. Stigebrandt, P. Johannessen, and T. Jahnsen. 1997. Regulating the local environmental impact of intensive marine fish farming - I. The concept of the MOM system (Modelling Ongrowing fish farms Monitoring). Aquaculture 158:85-94.


Fashchuk, D. Y., V. B. Murav'iev, and O. A. Petrenko. 2007. Ecogeographical assessment of the possible impact of mariculture on coastal waters in the Eastern Black Sea. Water Resources 34:195-203.


Felsing, B., B. Glencross, and T. Telfer. 2005. Preliminary study on the effects of exclusion of wild fauna from aquaculture cages in a shallow marine environment. Aquaculture 243:159-174.


Fernandez-Jovera, Damian, Pablo Sanchez-Jereza, Just Bayle-Semperea, Adoracion Carratalab and Victor M. Leonb. 2007. Addition of dissolved nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon from wild fish faeces and food around Mediterranean fish farms: Implications for waste-dispersal models. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 340(2):160-168.

Fernandes, M., M. Angove, T. Sedawie, and A. Cheshire. 2007. Dissolved nutrient release from solid wastes of southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii, Castelnau) aquaculture. Aquaculture Research 38:388-397.


Fernandes, M., P. Lauer, A. Cheshire, and M. Angove. 2007. Preliminary model of  Nitrogen loads from southern bluefin tuna aquaculture. Marine Pollution Bulletin 54:1321-1332.


Fernandes, T. F., A. Eleftheriou, H. Ackefors, M. Eleftheriou, A. Ervik, A. Sanchez-Mata, T. Scanlon, P. White, S. Cochrane, T. H. Pearson, and P. A. Read. 2001. The scientific principles underlying the monitoring of the environmental impacts of aquaculture. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 17:181-193.


Fiske, P., R. A. Lund, and L. P. Hansen. 2006. Relationships between the frequency of farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in wild salmon populations and fish farming activity in Norway, 1989-2004. Ices Journal of Marine Science 63:1182- 1189.

Focardi, S., I. Corsi, and E. Franchi. 2005. Safety issues and sustainable development of European aquaculture: new tools for environmentally sound aquaculture. Aquaculture International 13:3-17.


Folke, C., Kautsky, N., Berg, H., Asa, J., and M. Troell. 1998. The ecological footprint concept for sustainable seafood production: A Review. Ecological Applications, 8(1) Supplement, S63-S71.


Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) 1995. Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. FAO, Rome.


Giles, H. 2008. Using Bayesian networks to examine consistent trends in fish farm benthic impact studies. Aquaculture 274:181-195.


Goldburg R, and Naylor R. 2005. Future seascapes, fishing, and fish farming. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 3:21-28.


Gowen, R.J., H. Rosenthal, T. Makinen and I. Ezzi. 1990. The environmental impact of aquaculture activities. Pages 257-283 in N. De Pauw and R. Billard, eds. Aquaculture Europe '89 - Business Joins Science. Bredene, Belgium, European Aquaculture Society, Special Publication 12.


Gyllenhammar, A. and L. Hakanson. 2005. Environmental consequence analyses of fishfarm emissions related to different scales and exemplified by data from the Baltic – a review. Marine Environmental Research 60:211-243.


Hansen, P. K., A. Ervik, M. Schaanning, P. Johannessen, J. Aure, T. Jahnsen, and A.Stigebrandt. 2001. Regulating the local environmental impact of intensive, marine fish farming II. The monitoring programme of the MOM system (Modelling-Ongrowing fish farms-Monitoring). Aquaculture 194:75-92.

Hardy RW. 2000. Urban legends and fish nutrition. Aquaculture Magazine 26:47-50.


Hardy, R.W. and A. Tacon. 2002. Fish meal: historical uses, production trends and future outlook for supplies. Pages 311-325 in Responsible Marine Aquaculture, Stickney, R. and J. McVey, eds. CABI Publishing, New York.


Hargrave. B.T., Phillips, G.A., Doucette, L.I., White, M.J., Milligan, T.G., Wildish, and R.E. Cranston. 1997. Assessing benthic impacts of organic enrichment marine aquaculture. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 99: 641-650.


Hawkins, C.D. and J.B. Jones. 2002. Larval escape through abalone culture effluent systems: an analysis of the risk. Journal of Shellfish Research 21(2):805-809.


Henderson, A., S. Gamito, I. Karakassis, P. Pederson, and A. Smaal. 2001. Use of hydrodynamic and benthic models for managing environmental impacts of marine aquaculture. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 17:163-172.


Hindar, K., I. A. Fleming, P. McGinnity, and A. Diserud. 2006. Genetic and ecological effects of salmon farming on wild salmon: modelling from experimental results. Ices Journal of Marine Science 63:1234-1247.


Hoagland, P., D. Jin and H.L. Kite-Powell. 2003. The optimal allocation of ocean space: aquaculture and wild harvest fisheries. Marine Resource Economics 18(2):129-147.


Hoagland, P, Kite-Powell, H, Jin, D, Schumacher, M, Katz, L, and Klinger D. 2007.  Economic sustainability of marine aquaculture. A report to the Marine Aquaculture Task Force, February 2007. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 64p.


Howarth R., D. Anderson, J. Cloern, C.Elfring, C. Hopkinson, B. Lapointe, T.Malone, N. Marcus, K. McGlathery, A.N.Sharpley, and D. Walker. 2000. Nutrient pollution of coastal rivers, bays, and seas. Issues in Ecology 7:1-17.


Huang, C.-H. 1997. Aquaculture and the endogenous damage cost of water pollution: the case of Taiwan. Aquaculture Economics and Management 1(1-2):99-108.


Huiwen, C. and S. Yinglan. 2007. Management of marine cage aquaculture -Environmental carrying capacity method based on dry feed conversion rate. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 14:463-469.


Islam, M.S. 2005. Nitrogen and phosphorus budget in coastal and marine cage aquaculture and impacts of effluent loading on ecosystem: review and analysis towards model development. Marine Pollution Bulletin 50:48-61.


Iversen, T. M. 1995. Fish farming in Denmark - Environmental-impact of regulative legislation. Water Science and Technology 31:73-84.


Jackson, J.B.C.  2001. What was natural in the coastal oceans ? Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences USA 98: 5411-5418.


Jackson, J. B. C. 2008. Ecological extinction and evolution in the brave new ocean. Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences 105, Suppl.1: 11458-11465.


Jackson, J.B.C. et al. 2001. Historical overfishing and recent collapse of coastal ecosystems. Science 293: 629-638.


Johnson, S. C., J. W. Treasurer, S. Bravo, K. Nagasawa, and Z. Kabata. 2004. A review of the impact of parasitic copepods on marine aquaculture. Zoological Studies 43: 229-243.


Jorstad, K. E., T. Van Der Meeren, O. I. Paulsen, T. Thomsen, A. Thorsen, and T. Svasand. 2008. "Escapes" of eggs from farmed cod spawning in net pens: Recruitment to wild stocks. Reviews in Fisheries Science 16: 285-295.


Jusup, M., S. Gecek, and T. Legovic. 2007. Impact of aquacultures on the marine ecosystem: Modelling benthic carbon loading over variable depth. Ecological Modelling 200:459-466.


Kalantzi, I. and I. Karakassis. 2006. Benthic impacts of fish farming: Meta-analysis of community and geochemical data. Marine Pollution Bulletin 52:484-493.


Katz, T., B. Herut, A. Genin, and D. L. Angel. 2002. Gray mullets ameliorate organically enriched sediments below a fish farm in the oligotrophic Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea). Marine Ecology-Progress Series 234:205-214.


Kiefer, D.A., O’Brien, F., Rensel, J.E.J. 2007. Modelling water column and benthic effects of fish mariculture of cobia (Rachycentron canadum) in Puerto Rico: Cobia AquaModel.  Final Report to Ocean Harvest Aquaculture Inc., P.R. and NOAA, Washington D.C. 64p.


Kinoshita, K., S. Tamaki, M. Yoshioka, S. Srithonguthai, T. Kunihiro, D. Hama, K. Ohwada, and H. Tsutsumi. 2008. Bioremediation of organically enriched sediment deposited below fish farms with artificially mass-cultured colonies of a deposit-feeding polychaete Capitella sp I. Fisheries Science 74:77-87.


Kishi, M. J. and M. Uchiyama. 1995. A three dimensional numerical model for a mariculture nitrogen cycle: Case study in Shizugawa Bay, Japan. Fisheries Oceanography 4:303-316.


Krkosek, Lewis, M.A., and J.P. Volpe. 2005. Transmission dynamics of parasitic sea lice from farm to wild salmon. Proc. Royal Soc. B 272: 689-696.


Krkosek, M., Morton, A., Lewis, M.A., Frazer, N., and J.P. Volpe. 2006. Epizootics of wild fish induced by farm fish. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103(42): 15506-15510.


Krkosek, M., J. S. Ford, A. Morton, S. Lele, R.A. Myers, and M.A. Lewis, 2007. Declining wild salmon populations in relation to parasites from farm salmon. Science. 318: 1772-1775.


Lampadariou, N., I. Akoumianaki, and I. Karakassis. 2008. Use of the size fractionation of the macrobenthic biomass for the rapid assessment of benthic organic enrichment. Ecological Indicators 8:729-742.


LaPatra, S. E. 2003. The lack of scientific evidence to support the development of effluent limitations guidelines for aquatic animal pathogens. Aquaculture 226:191-199.


Lee, H. W., J. H. Bailey-Brock, and M. M. McGurr. 2006. Temporal changes in the polychaete infaunal community surrounding a Hawaiian mariculture operation. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 307:175-185.


Leung, K., J. Chu and R. Wu. 1999. Nitrogen budget for the areolated grouper Epinepheus areolatus cultured under laboratory conditions and in open-sea cages. Marine Ecology Progress Series 186:271-281.


Lopez, B. D., M. Bunke, and J. A. B. Shirai. 2008. Marine aquaculture off Sardinia Island (Italy): Ecosystem effects evaluated through a trophic mass-balance model. Ecological Modelling 212:292-303.


Lupatsch, I. and G. Kissil. 1998. Predicting aquaculture wastes from gilthead Seabream (Sparus aurata) culture using nutritional approach. Aquatic Living Resources 11(4):265-268.


Machias, A., I. Karakassis, M. Labropoulou, S. Somarakis, K.N. Papadopoulou, and C. Papaconstantinou. 2004. Changes in wild fish assemblages after the establishment of a fish farming zone in an oligotrophic marine ecosystem. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 60:771-779.


Machias, A., I. Karakassis, M. Giannoulaki, K. N. Papadopoulou, C. J. Smith, and S. Somarakis. 2005. Response of demersal fish communities to the presence of fish farms. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 288:241-250.



Machias, A., M. Giannoulaki, S. Somarakis, C. D. Maravelias, C. Neofitou, D. Koutsoubas, K. N. Papadopoulou, and I. Karakassis. 2006. Fish farming effects on local fisheries landings in oligotrophic seas. Aquaculture 261:809-816.


Marine Aquaculture Task Force. 2007. Sustainable marine aquaculture: Fulfilling the promise; Managing the risks.  Report of the Marine Aquaculture Task Force, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Takoma, Park, MD, January 2007, 142p.


Morton, A., Volpe, J.P. 2002. A description of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the Pacific salmon fishery in British Columbia, Canada, in 2000. Alaska Fishery Research Bulletin 9:102-110.


Macleod, C. K., C. M. Crawford, and N. A. Moltschaniwskyj. 2004. Assessment of long term change in sediment condition after organic enrichment: defining recovery. Marine Pollution Bulletin 49:79-88.


Macleod, C. K., N. A. Moltschaniwskyj, C. M. Crawford, and S. E. Forbes. 2007. Biological recovery from organic enrichment: some systems cope better than others. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 342:41-53.


Maldonado, M., M. C. Carmona, Y. Echeverria, and A. Riesgo. 2005. The environmental impact of Mediterranean cage fish farms at semi-exposed locations: does it need a re-assessment? Helgoland Marine Research 59:121-135.


Maroni, K. 2000. Monitoring and regulation of marine aquaculture in Norway. Journal of Applied Ichthyology-Zeitschrift Fur Angewandte Ichthyologie 16:192-195.


McDaniels, T. L., H. Dowlatabadi, and S. Stevens. 2005. Multiple scales and regulatory gaps in environmental change: the case of salmon aquaculture. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions 15:9-21.


Morton,A., R. Routledge, C. Peet, and A. Ladwig. 2004. Sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infection rates on juvenile pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chum (Oncorhynchus keta) salmon in the nearshore marine environment of British Columbia, Canada. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 61:147–157.


Morton, A., Routledge, R.D., and R. Williams. 2005. Temporal patterns of sea louse infestation on wild Pacific salmon in relation to the fallowing of Atlantic salmon farms. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 25: 811-821.


Nash, C.E., P.R. Burbridge, and J.K. Volkman (editors). 2005. Guidelines for ecological risk assessment of marine fish aquaculture. U.S. Dept. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-NWFSC-71, 90 p.


Naylor, R. and M. Burke. 2005. Aquaculture and ocean resources: Raising tigers of the sea. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 30:185-218.


Naylor RL, Goldburg RJ, Primavera JH, Kautsky N, Beveridge MCM, Clay J, Folke C, Lubchenco J, Mooney H, and Troell M. 2000. Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies. Nature 405: 1017 1024.


Naylor, R.L., K. Hindar, I.A. Fleming, R. Goldburg, S. Williams, J. Volpe, F. Whoriskey, J. Eagle, D. Kelso, and M. Mangel. 2005. Fugitive salmon: assessing the risks of escaped fish from net-pen aquaculture. Bioscience 55(5):427-37.


Neori, A., T. Chopin, M. Troell, A.H. Buschmann, G.P. Kraemer, C. Halling, M. Shpigel, and C. Yarish. 2004. Integrated aquaculture: rationale, evolution and state of the art emphasizing seaweed biofiltration in modern mariculture. Aquaculture 231:361-391.


NOAA Code of Conduct. 2003. A Code of Conduct for Responsible Aquaculture Development in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone.


Nordvarg, L. and L. Hakanson. 2002. Predicting the environmental response of fish farming in coastal areas of the Aland archipelago (Baltic Sea) using management models for coastal water planning. Aquaculture 206:217-243.


Olivier, G. 2002. Disease interactions between wild and cultured fish - Perspectives from the American Northeast (Atlantic Provinces). Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 22:103-109.


O'Reilly, P. T., J. W. Carr, F. G. Whoriskey, and E. Verspoor. 2006. Detection of European ancestry in escaped farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in the magaguadavic river and Chamcook Stream, New Brunswick, Canada. Ices Journal of Marine Science 63:1256-1262.


Papatryphon, E., J. Petit, S. J. Kaushik, and H. M. G. van der Werf. 2004. Environmental impact assessment of salmonid feeds using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Ambio 33:316-323.


Pauly, D., V. Christensen, S. Guenette, T. J. Pitcher, U. R. Sumaila, and C. J. Walters, et al. 2002. Towards sustainability in world fisheries. Nature 418: 689-695.


Pauly, D., R. Watson, and J. Alder. 2005. Global trends in world fisheries: impacts on marine ecosystems and food security. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 360:5-12.


Perez, O. M., T. C. Telfer, M. C. M. Beveridge, and L. G. Ross. 2002. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) as a simple tool to aid modelling of particulate waste distribution at marine fish cage sites. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 54: 761-768.


Pike, I. 2005. Ecoefficiency in aquaculture: global catch of wild fish used in aquaculture. International Aquafeed 8(1):38-40.


Porrello, S., P. Tomassetti, L. Manzueto, M. G. Finoia, E. Persia, I. Mercatali, and P. Stipa. 2005. The influence of marine cages on the sediment chemistry in the Western Mediterranean Sea. Aquaculture 249:145-158.


Pusceddu, A., S. Fraschetti, S. Mirto, M. Holmer, and R. Danovaro. 2007. Effects of intensive mariculture on sediment biochemistry. Ecological Applications 17: 1366-1378.


Rapp, P., Ramirez, W.R., Rivera, J.A., Carlo, M., Luciano, R. 2007. Measurement of organic loading under an open-ocean aquaculture cage, using sediment traps on the bottom. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 23: 661-667.


Read, P. and T. Fernandes. 2003. Management of environmental impacts of marine aquaculture in Europe. Aquaculture 226:139-163.


Rensel, J.E. and Forster, J.R.M. 2007. Beneficial environmental effects of marine finfish Mariculture. Final report prepared for NMFS, NSGP-NOAA, Wahshington, D.C. 62p


Revie, C. W., G. Gettinby, J. W. Treasurer, A. N. Grant, and S. W. J. Reid. 2002. Sea lice infestations on farmed Atlantic salmon in Scotland and the use of ectoparasitic treatments. Veterinary Record 151:753-757.


Revie, C. W., G. Gettinby, J. W. Treasurer, and C. Wallace. 2003. Identifying epidemiological factors affecting sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis abundance on Scottish salmon farms using general linear models. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 57: 85-95.


Revie, C. W., G. Gettinby, J. W. Treasurer, and C. Wallace. 2005. Evaluating the effect of clustering when monitoring the abundance of sea lice populations on farmed Atlantic salmon. Journal of Fish Biology 66:773-783.


Rigos, G. and G. M. Troisi. 2005. Antibacterial agents in Mediterranean finfish farming: A synopsis of drug pharmacokinetics in important euryhaline fish species and possible environmental implications. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 15:53-73.


Rodger, H. and S. Mitchell. 2007. Epidemiological observations of pancreas disease of farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in Ireland. Journal of Fish Diseases 30: 157-167.


Salvanes, A. G. V. and V. Braithwaite. 2006. The need to understand the behavior of fish reared for mariculture or restocking. Ices Journal of Marine Science 63:346-354.


Scholz, T. 1999. Parasites in cultured and feral fish. Veterinary Parasitology 84:317-335.


Sepulveda, F., S. L. Marin, and J. Carvajal. 2004. Metazoan parasites in wild fish and farmed salmon from aquaculture sites in southern Chile. Aquaculture 235:89-100.


Silvert, W. 1992. Assessing environmental impacts of finfish aquaculture in marine waters. Aquaculture 107:67-79.


Silvert, W. 1994a. A decision-support system for regulating finfish aquaculture. Ecological Modelling 75:609-615.


Silvert, W. 1994b. Decision-support Systems for aquaculture licensing. Journal of Applied Ichthyology-Zeitschrift Fur Angewandte Ichthyologie 10:307-311.


Silvert, W. 1994c. Simulation-models of finfish farms. Journal of Applied Ichthyology- Zeitschrift Fur Angewandte Ichthyologie 10:349-352.


Silvert, W. and J. W. Sowles. 1996. Modelling environmental impacts of marine finfish aquaculture. Journal of Applied Ichthyology-Zeitschrift Fur Angewandte Ichthyologie 12:75-81.


Snyder, W. E. and E. W. Evans. 2006. Ecological effects of invasive arthropod generalist predators. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 37:95-122.


Stanley, D.L. 2000. The economics of the adoption of BMPs: the case of Mariculture water management. Ecological Economics 35: 145-155.


State of Florida. 2007. Aquaculture Best Management Practices Rule, January 2007, Charles Bronson Commissioner, Division of Aquaculture, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 126p


Sylvia, G., J.L. Anderson and D. Cai. 1996. A multilevel, multiobjective policy model: the case of marine aquaculture development. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 78(1): 79-88.


Tacon, A. G. J., M. J. Phillips, and U. C. Barg. 1995. Aquaculture feeds and the environment - The Asian experience. Water Science and Technology 31:41-59.


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